Early Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar and lasting until the 6th century AH. The period is known as the Islamic Golden Age, and the achievements of this period had a crucial influence in the development of modern philosophy and science; for Renaissance Europe, the influence represented “one of the largest technology transfers in world history.” This period starts with al-Kindi in the 9th century and ends with Averroes at the end of 12th century.

Philosophus Autodidactus also had a “profound influence” on modern Western philosophy. It became one of the most important books that heralded the Scientific Revolution” and European Enlightenment, and the thoughts expressed in the novel can be found in different variations and to different degrees in the books of Thom. The story revolves around a little boy who grew up on an island in the Indies under the equator, isolated from the people, in the bosom of an antelope that raised him and provided food for him from her milk. Ḥayy has learned walking, imitating the sounds of antelopes, birds and other animals in his surrounding, learn the languages of the animals around him, and guiding himself to the actions of animals by imitating their instincts.

The Islamic philosophers, Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis, were pioneers of the philosophical novel. They wrote the first fictional Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus)

Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān lived a humble modest life as Sufi and forbade himself from eating meat, however, he made his own shoes and clothes from animal skins. He would continuously study the stars and nature, which helped him gain great knowledge and wisdom of natural science, philosophy and religion. When Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān became thirty years old, he met the first human who landed on his isolated Island. By the age of forty-nine years, he was ready to teach other people about the knowledge he gained throughout his life. He concluded that there is the existence of a great creator, who created the universe.

Robinson Crusoe  is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.

A Latin translation of Philosophus Autodidactus was published in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger. The first English translation by Simon Ockley was published in 1708, and German and Dutch translations were also published at the time. Philosophus Autodidactus went on to have a significant influence on European literature, and became an influential best-seller throughout Western Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. These translations later inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, which also featured a desert island narrative and was regarded as the first novel in English.

The Late Antiquity experienced profound cultural and social change: the political disintegration of the Roman Empire in the West, contrasted by its continuation and transformation in the East; the arrival of ‘barbarian’ newcomers and the establishment of new policies; a renewed militarisation and Christianisation of society. The transition from the time-bound into the timeless, from reason to the suprarational, does not take place at one point either,  nor does it coincide simply with political decay, as appears too often in the cliches about history.

 

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity and is one of the most influential people of Western culture and is one of the most prominent religious historical figures. Jesus is believed to be a prophet who neither married nor had any children and is reflected as a significant figure, is found in the Quran in 93 verses with various titles attached such as “Son of Mary” and other relational terms, mentioned directly and indirectly, over 187 times. *, Unlike the Christian tradition, the mysticism of Islam was not cloistered in monasteries. Sufis were — and remain — social and political agents who went about seeking the Divine in the very midst of humanity.

This is the vision, and it implies a complete order and hierarchy in the Universe, from the ninth heaven to the rock buried deep in the earth, and that order is reflected in the law and the order of society. As temporal justice and tangible society decay beyond repair, the mind of the sage retreat into the invisible order entrusted to God’s chosen ones, the unknown Saints in their hierarchy, this mystical realm of Islam formed a powerful companion to the legal dimension of Islam (sharia).

If religion were true, it would not have escaped the notice of these men, since they are so precise in this science.” Thus, after becoming acquainted by hearsay with their unbelief and denial of religion, he draws the conclusion that the truth is the denial and rejection of religion!

This point is familiar only to those who have studied the matter deeply for themselves.” If such a person is fixed in this belief which he has chosen out of respect for authority, he is not moved by this argument but is carried by strength of passion, love of vanity, and the desire to be thought clever to persist in his good opinion of the philosophers with regard to all the sciences…

Ibn al-Nafis described his book Theologus Autodidactus as a defense of “the system of Islam and the Muslims’ doctrines on the missions of Prophets, the religious laws, the resurrection of the body, and the transitoriness of the world.” He presents rational arguments for bodily resurrection and the immortality of the human soul, using both demonstrative reasoning and material from the hadith corpus to prove his case. Later Islamic scholars viewed this work as a response to the metaphysical claim of Avicenna and Ibn Tufail that bodily resurrection cannot be proven through reason, a view that was earlier criticized by al-Ghazali.

Against them, one may argue: “The man who excels in one art does not necessarily excel in every art. It is not necessary that the man who excels in law and theology should excel in medicine, nor that the man who is ignorant of intellectual speculations should be ignorant of grammar. Rather, every art has people who have obtained excellence and preeminence in it, even though stupidity and ignorance may characterise them in other arts. The arguments in elementary matters of mathematics are demonstrative whereas those in theology (or metaphysics) are based on conjecture.

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SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION IN ISLAM By: Seyyed Hossein HaST With a Preface by GIORGIO DE SANTILLANA retrieved from http://traditionalhikma.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Science-and-Civilization-in-Islam.pdf on the 29/04/2018

wikipedia.org – Hayy_ibn_Yaqdhan – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayy_ibn_Yaqdhan
wikipedia.org – Ibn_Tufail – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Tufail
* wikipedia.org – Jesus in Islam – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesus_in_Islam

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